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The phrase does not mean that the land in question necessarily bordered on a specific waterway, but that water draining from that land eventually entered that creek or river. In other words, the land was located on the watershed of the specific waterway. These references are further compounded by the fact that early tax collectors often referred to only the major watersheds. Over time, minor waterways received their own name. Early tax references may indicate that the land is on a major waterway; later references may indicate a tributary that had since been differentiated by its own name.
This practice gives rise to confusion for the researcher who may assume that the taxpayer has moved. A list of persons owing taxes was often included at the end of the tax digests. These lists were usually published in a local newspaper, as well.
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Sometimes the lists were published before the tax deadline, and are really lists of persons who had not yet filed their returns, as opposed to actual defaulters. There were several ways a person could be listed as a defaulter:. This act was passed in compliance with a demand from the Federal Government for support. As far as can be determined, the Direct Tax was comprised of three lists-dwelling houses land lots, and wharves and slaves. By the last quarter of the nineteenth century, tax digests assume a printed standardized form.
It is primarily the earlier tax digests that present a problem.
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If the headings are simply absent, go to the beginning of the tax digest and see if they are on the first page of the digest itself or at the beginnings of each militia district. If that is not the case, it is likely that the headings were in a chart in the digests that is now lost. An examination of the tax act creating the digest is useful. Each heading represents a clause in the creating legislation. Most often the forms of recording information follow the clause sequence within the legislation.
However, idiosyncrasies arise where columns and headings are arranged in different ways. Agents are representatives for the named taxable person. No specific relationship is implied. Often a family member is an agent. When women appeared as taxable persons, a male agent usually represented them. The early tax digests provide a number of important possibilities for African-American history and genealogy. With the loss of early census records, the tax digests are among the better sources for understanding the demography of slavery. Consistently from until the tax digests reflect varying rates of taxation on ownership of slaves.
By analyzing the amount paid the researcher can determine the number of slaves owned by the taxpayer. Later in the century, the census schedule of slave-owners provides a much better source for this type of information.
Free persons of color were heavily taxed, and legislation in mandated that a register of free persons of color be maintained in tax digests. The lists have a great deal of information, including the names of minors and of white guardians. Please see our Research Help Page for African-American Resources for a list of counties for which registers are extant. They are available on microfilm, and have also been indexed and abstracted and published by Michael A.
Later tax digests of the s and s often contain lists of African-American freedmen enrolled under the name of their employer. From the time after the Civil War until the mid-twentieth century, tax digests are segregated by race. All men between the ages of 21 and 60 had to pay a poll tax or head tax, whether or not they owned real property. Tax digests can supply information about location, movement, ownership of real and personal property, and clues to occupation.
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Tax digests from through have been scanned and indexed and are available on Ancestry. Tax digests after are available at the Georgia Archives. Homesteads, Pony Homesteads and other designations refer to a legal concept that has evolved over time. Originally, this seems to refer to property that was necessary to maintain a person in an independent condition and to protect this critical property from creditors.
They survive frequently from the late nineteenth century. These records can contain very important information for historians and for genealogists. The record formats and the information vary widely from case to case. Land that had been surveyed for an individual was subject to taxation even though the land had not yet been granted to that individual.
Many land grants in Georgia were not made final for years after the land had been granted by petition or by fortunate lottery draw. These tax acts continually revive preceding acts, often with amendments. Many simple tax questions can be answered by a glance at the law. The inferior court handled probate and guardianship matters from to Many probate records to the s and s are at the Georgia Department of Archives and History and the Family History Library on microfilm.
Content: Probate Records may give the decedent's date of death, names of his or her spouse, children, parents, siblings, in-laws, neighbors, associates, relatives, and their place of residence. Record types: Wills, estates, guardianships, naturalizations, marriage, adoption, and birth and death records not all years. The organization Strictly By Name provides free online indexes to early Franklin County probate records.
They offer a record retrieval service to photocopy and transcribe microfilm copies of the original documents for a small fee.
Available indexes:. Taxes were levied on free white males over 21 and all slaves up to age These persons are referred to as "polls. The records for each county are divided by militia district.see url
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Vital Records consist of births , adoptions, marriages , divorces, and deaths recorded on registers, certificates, and documents. Family History Centers provide one-on-one assistance and free access to premium genealogical websites. In addition, many centers have free how-to genealogy classes. To request editing rights on the Wiki, click here. From FamilySearch Wiki.
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Canon Carnesville county seat. Franklin Springs Lavonia. Ashland Cromers Fairview. Draper, Utah: Everton Pub. Provo, Utah: Ancestry, , At various libraries WorldCat. Navigation menu Personal tools English. Namespaces Page Talk. Views Read View source View history. Research Wiki. This page was last edited on 17 August , at This page has been viewed 4, times via redirect Content is available under Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike unless otherwise noted. County Facts. County seat:. February 25, Parent County s :. Cherokee Indian lands .